*x*= 0, if*f*(0) exists;*x*→ ∞, if*f*(*x*) exists in that direction;*x*→ −∞, if*f*(*x*) exists in that direction;*x*→*c*^{−}, if*f*(*x*) exists in that direction, whenever*f*is undefined or discontinuous at*c*;*x*→*c*^{+}, if*f*(*x*) exists in that direction, whenever*f*is undefined or discontinuous at*c*;*x*=*c*, if*f*(*c*) exists, whenever*f*is undefined approaching*c*from either direction (or both);*x*=*c*, whenever*f*(*c*) = 0;*x*=*c*, if*f*(*c*) exists, whenever*f*′ is undefined or discontinuous at*c*;*x*=*c*, whenever*f*′(*c*) = 0;*x*=*c*, if*f*(*c*) exists, whenever*f*′′ is undefined or discontinuous at*c*;*x*=*c*, whenever*f*′′(*c*) = 0.

If you have a graphing calculator, then you may use it,
but you still need to ensure that all of the features listed above appear.
At the very least,
this may require you to adjust the calculator's graphing window.
If you're graphing by hand,
then you'll get the best results
if you know the values or limits
of *f*, *f*′, and *f*′′
for all of these places or limits,
but you should at least get *f* for all of them
and *f*′ whenever you looked there
because of something involving *f*′ or *f*′′.
You can also look at places in between these (if *f* is defined there)
for an even more precise graph.

Go back to the course homepage.

This web page was written between 2015 and 2018 by Toby Bartels, last edited on 2018 November 11. Toby reserves no legal rights to it.

The permanent URI of this web page
is
`http://tobybartels.name/MATH-1600/2018FA/graphing/`

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